Volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1998 to 2012, and from nadir viewing satellites for the troposphere


Brühl, Christoph

This directory (experiment) contains volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1998 to 2012. The usage of the data is described in Timmreck et al., (2018), datasets VolcDB1 and VolcDB1_3D.
We provide 3D-plumes of observed volume mixing ratio perturbations in the lower stratosphere / upper
troposphere typically derived from 10-day periods as nc-files and integrated values of injected SO2 mass with peak
latitudes and altitudes as Fortran formatted ascii files (A11,5(1X,I3),I4,4(1X,I3),5(1X,I2),I3,4(1X,I2)) for at
maximum 5 events at one time. Instead of A11 I2,I5,I5 can be used to read in the components of time. The data from
Dec. 1997 to Jan. 2002 are based on L2-files of SAGE II (V7.0) provided by the NASA DAAC (Thomason et al., 2008).
The data from Jul. 2002 to Mar. 2012 use the updated 5-day time series of MIPAS (Hoepfner et al., 2015),
supplemented by SO2 derived from GOMOS extinctions (Bingen et al., 2017, with a corresponding table).
SO2volc3D_pap_T42L90r.nc: 3D SO2 for 131 events in T42L90 resolution (ECHAM-grid in grid_T42L90.nc) surface to
about 80km)..
SO2volc3D_pap_T63L90r.nc: same in T63L90 resolution (ECHAM-grid in grid_T63L90.nc). Here a downscaling by
0.7 for low latitude eruptions is recommended because of less removal by overshooting convection (The data
in the T42 file and in the table in Bingen et al 2017 were upscaled within the measurement uncertainty to
overcome the model artifact in low resolution, this applies only for the ENVISAT part from Jul. 2002 on).
Latitude from South to North, for use with ECHAM please reverse. The levels on the hybrid-grid in the grid
files are defined as lev(x,y,z)=hyam(z)+hybm(z)*apsave(x,y), in Pa (apsave annual average of surface pressure
or orography).
Volcano_or_region_echam_merged_dd_mm_yyyy.txt: integrated SO2 mass injected (in kt), SAGE and ENVISAT period.

The postscript-file is an example on the T42 grid, the *doc-file includes the volcano names for the data in
the *.txt Files, see also http://wwww.volcano.si.edu (Smithsonian volcano database).

AEROCOM-DIEHL_UMZ1_tropo11.nc: Fluxes from outgassing volcanoes in the troposphere (below 200hPa), taken
from AEROCOM (Diehl, 2012; Caution, filled with odd climatology after 2009, monthly, beginning in Jan. 1950)
AEROCOM-DIEHL_1297-0312_tropo11.nc: Subset beginning Dec. 1997.
SSIRC (Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate)
Dr. Christoph Brühl (
Spatial Coverage
Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Temporal Coverage
1997-12-01 to 2012-03-31 (calendrical)
Use constraints
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Data Catalog
World Data Center for Climate
4.74 GiB (5088950954 Byte)
NetCDF, ascii
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
Cite as
Brühl, Christoph (2018). Volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1998 to 2012, and from nadir viewing satellites for the troposphere. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. https://doi.org/10.1594/WDCC/SSIRC_1

The data derived from L2 satellite data.
The usage of the data is described in Timmreck et al (2018)
Detailed description of the methods and accuracy:
MIPAS see Höpfner et al. (2015)
SO2volc3D datasets see Bingen et al. (2017) Appendix
and Thomason et al. (2008)
Findable: 6 of 7 level;
Accessible: 2 of 3 level;
Interoperable: 3 of 4 level;
Reusable: 5 of 10 level
F-UJI online v2.2.1 automated
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. Metrics documentation: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4081213 Metric Version: metrics_v0.5
Method Url
Result Date
Result Date
1. Number of data sets is correct and > 0: passed;
2. Size of every data set is > 0: passed;
3. The data sets and corresponding metadata are accessible: passed;
4. The data sizes are controlled and correct: passed;
5. The temporal coverage description (metadata) is consistent to the data: passed;
6. The format is correct: passed;
7. Variable description and data are consistent: passed
WDCC-TQA checklist
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. The list of TQA metrics are documented in the 'WDCC User Guide for Data Publication' Chapter 8.1.1
Method Url
Result Date
Contact typePersonORCIDOrganization

Is documented by

[1] DOI Bingen, Christine; Robert, Charles E.; Stebel, Kerstin; Brühl, Christoph; Schallock, Jennifer; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Höpfner, Michael; Trickl, Thomas; Barnes, John E.; Jumelet, Julien; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon. (2017). Stratospheric aerosol data records for the climate change initiative: Development, validation and application to chemistry-climate modelling. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2017.06.002
[2] DOI Diehl, T.; Heil, A.; Chin, M.; Pan, X.; Streets, D.; Schultz, M.; Kinne, S. (2012). Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments. doi:10.5194/acpd-12-24895-2012
[3] DOI Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K. (2015). Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012. doi:10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015
[4] DOI Thomason, L. W.; Burton, S. P.; Luo, B.-P.; Peter, T. (2008). SAGE II measurements of stratospheric aerosol properties at non-volcanic levels. doi:10.5194/acp-8-983-2008
[5] DOI Timmreck, Claudia; Mann, Graham W.; Aquila, Valentina; Hommel, Rene; Lee, Lindsay A.; Schmidt, Anja; Brühl, Christoph; Carn, Simon; Chin, Mian; Dhomse, Sandip S.; Diehl, Thomas; English, Jason M.; Mills, Michael J.; Neely, Ryan; Sheng, Jianxiong; Toohey, Matthew; Weisenstein, Debra. (2018). The Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol Model Intercomparison Project (ISA-MIP): Motivation and experimental design. doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-308

Is related to

[1] DOI Brühl, Christoph; Schallock, Jennifer; Diehl, Thomas. (2021). Volcanic SO2 data derived from limb viewing satellites for the lower stratosphere from 1990 to 2019, and from nadir viewing satellites for the troposphere, including the corresponding radiative forcing computed by the CCM EMAC. doi:10.26050/WDCC/SSIRC_3

Attached Datasets ( 7 )

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[Entry acronym: SSIRC_1] [Entry id: 3590297]