The transient simulation was performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model version 1.2 in coarse resolution (MPI-ESM-CR). The model includes the spectral atmospheric model ECHAM6.3 at T31 horizontal resolution (approx. 3.75°) and 31 vertical levels, the land surface vegetation model JSBACH3.2, and the primitive equation ocean model MPIOM1.6 with a nominal resolution of 3°. The applied setup was introduced in detail in Kapsch et al. (2021 and 2022).
For the experiment, the model was integrated from a glacial state at 26 ka to the year 1950 with prescribed atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (Köhler et al., 2017) and insolation (Berger & Loutre, 1991).
Note that the time runs with an offset of +25001 years, meaning that the year range 1-25000 of the data set equals the years 25000-1 BP (Before Present).
PalMod2 (PalMod2)
Dr. Marie-Luise Kapsch (

Dr. Uwe Mikolajewicz (
Spatial Coverage
Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Temporal Coverage
25000-01-01 to 1-12-31 (time before present (1950=0))
Use constraints
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) (
Data Catalog
World Data Center for Climate
17.99 TiB (19782163723575 Byte)
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
Cite as
There is no citation information available on this level, please see the associated parent or child entry (if available) for citation details.
as consistent as the model MPI-ESM1-2-CR
Contact typePersonORCIDOrganization


[1] DOI Mauritsen, Thorsten; Bader, Jürgen; Becker, Tobias; Behrens, Jörg; Bittner, Matthias; Brokopf, Renate; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Crueger, Traute; Esch, Monika; Fast, Irina; Fiedler, Stephanie; Fläschner, Dagmar; Gayler, Veronika; Giorgetta, Marco; Goll, Daniel S.; Haak, Helmuth; Hagemann, Stefan; Hedemann, Christopher; Hohenegger, Cathy; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jahns, Thomas; Jimenéz‐de‐la‐Cuesta, Diego; Jungclaus, Johann; Kleinen, Thomas; Kloster, Silvia; Kracher, Daniela; Kinne, Stefan; Kleberg, Deike; Lasslop, Gitta; Kornblueh, Luis; Marotzke, Jochem; Matei, Daniela; Meraner, Katharina; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Modali, Kameswarrao; Möbis, Benjamin; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nam, Christine C. W.; Notz, Dirk; Nyawira, Sarah‐Sylvia; Paulsen, Hanna; Peters, Karsten; Pincus, Robert; Pohlmann, Holger; Pongratz, Julia; Popp, Max; Raddatz, Thomas Jürgen; Rast, Sebastian; Redler, Rene; Reick, Christian H.; Rohrschneider, Tim; Schemann, Vera; Schmidt, Hauke; Schnur, Reiner; Schulzweida, Uwe; Six, Katharina D.; Stein, Lukas; Stemmler, Irene; Stevens, Bjorn; Storch, Jin‐Song; Tian, Fangxing; Voigt, Aiko; Vrese, Philipp; Wieners, Karl‐Hermann; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Winkler, Alexander; Roeckner, Erich. (2019). Developments in the MPI-M Earth System Model version 1.2 (MPI-ESM1.2) and Its Response to Increasing CO2. doi:10.1029/2018ms001400
[2] DOI Müller, W. A.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Mauritsen, T.; Baehr, J.; Bittner, M.; Budich, R.; Bunzel, F.; Esch, M.; Ghosh, R.; Haak, H.; Ilyina, T.; Kleine, T.; Kornblueh, L.; Li, H.; Modali, K.; Notz, D.; Pohlmann, H.; Roeckner, E.; Stemmler, I.; Tian, F.; Marotzke, J. (2018). A Higher‐resolution Version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI‐ESM1.2‐HR). doi:10.1029/2017ms001217
[3] DOI Kapsch, Marie‐Luise; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Ziemen, Florian; Schannwell, Clemens. (2022). Ocean Response in Transient Simulations of the Last Deglaciation Dominated by Underlying Ice‐Sheet Reconstruction and Method of Meltwater Distribution. doi:10.1029/2021gl096767
[4] DOI Meccia, Virna Loana; Mikolajewicz, Uwe. (2018). Interactive ocean bathymetry and coastlines for simulating the last deglaciation with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM-v1.2). doi:10.5194/gmd-11-4677-2018
[5] DOI Riddick, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Hagemann, Stefan; Mikolajewicz, Uwe. (2018). Dynamic hydrological discharge modelling for coupled climate model simulations of the last glacial cycle: the MPI-DynamicHD model version 3.0. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-4291-2018

Is documented by

[1] DOI Köhler, Peter; Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Schmitt, Jochen; Stocker, Thomas F.; Fischer, Hubertus. (2017). A 156 kyr smoothed history of the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, and N<sub>2</sub>O and their radiative forcing. doi:10.5194/essd-9-363-2017
[2] DOI Berger, A.; Loutre, M.F. (1991). Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(91)90033-q

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[Entry acronym: PMMXMCR] [Entry id: 3970240]