ICON-NWP simulations of the mid-Holocene West African Monsoon using parameterized and explicit convection and mid-Holocene land surface


Jungandreas, Leonore; Hohenegger, Cathy; Claussen, Martin

The experiment aims to investigate how the representation of convection influences the West African Monsoon during the mid-Holocene.
Atmospheric and SST input data originate from the MPI-ESM Holocene simulations reflecting Holocene condition.
External Parameters (surface condition) were adjusted to reflect mid-Holocene vegetation conditions. We prescribe an idealized, denser vegetation cover based on the simulated desert fraction (1-vegetation fraction) of the transient mid-Holocene MPI-ESM simulations (Dallmeyer et al., 2020).

We use the ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) model framework version 2.5.0 (see Zängl et al. (2014) for more details).

The provided data covers one simulation from June to October (JJASO) for the year 7024 before present (BP) with the year 2000 as the reference year.

The time axes of the NetCDF files reflect the model year which is based on the time axes of the MPI-ESM slo0021a Holocene simulations. The artificial model year 1001 in slo0021a refers to the year 8000 BP. Therefore, the model year 1978 refers to the year 7024 BP.

The experiment compares a 5km horizontal resolution, deep convection resolving simulation with a 40km-horizontal resolution, parameterized convection simulation.

The 40km-domain (DOM01) covers a range from 70.5°W - 99.5°E; 49°S - 59°N
The 5km-domain (DOM04) covers a range from 37°W - 53°E; 0°N - 40°N

The dataset provides daily mean values on the triangular ICON grid.

The datasets provide atmospheric (_atm_ 3D), surface (_sfc_ 2D) and precipitation ( _prec_ 2D) and forcing (extpar_) data and the following variables:
w_so, lhfl_s, shfl_s, runoff_s, runoff_g, rain_con_rate, rain_gsp_rate, geopot, temp, rh, qv, u, v, w, clc

Precipitation and forcing data are combined into 2 data files for DOM01 and DOM04. Surface data are combined into 2 data files for DOM01.
The dataset with the suffix "_constSM_sep_" contains the data for the constant soil moisture simulations. In these simulations we prescribe the same constant soil moisture field, representing 1st September-soil moisture conditions, both for the 40km-P (DOM01) and the 5km-E (DOM04) simulations.

The DS ("Dry Sahara") simulations refer to the simulations where we prescribe present-day land surface cover - the Sahara remains a desert.
The GS ("Green Sahara") simulations represent idealized mid-Holocene conditions where we prescribe a higher vegetation cover that also extend further north. The Sahara reflects more savannah-like vegetation.
Conv_mH_WAM (Simulations of land-atmosphere feedback during the mid-Holocene West African Monsoon with resolved deep convection)
Leonore Jungandreas (
Spatial Coverage
Longitude -70.5 to 99.5 Latitude -49 to 59 Altitude: 100000 Pa to 10 Pa
Temporal Coverage
-7024-05-30 to -7024-10-31 (calendrical)
Use constraints
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Data Catalog
World Data Center for Climate
515.18 GiB (553168771015 Byte)
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
Cite as
Jungandreas, Leonore; Hohenegger, Cathy; Claussen, Martin (2023). ICON-NWP simulations of the mid-Holocene West African Monsoon using parameterized and explicit convection and mid-Holocene land surface. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ. https://doi.org/10.26050/WDCC/ICON-NWP_mH_pd

[Entry acronym: ICON-NWP_mH_pd] [Entry id: 3965486]
Data is controlled to be CF-conform
Findable: 6 of 7 level;
Accessible: 2 of 3 level;
Interoperable: 3 of 4 level;
Reusable: 5 of 10 level
F-UJI online v2.2.1 automated
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. Metrics documentation: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4081213 Metric Version: metrics_v0.5
Method Url
Result Date
Result Date
1. Number of data sets is correct and > 0: passed;
2. Size of every data set is > 0: passed;
3. The data sets and corresponding metadata are accessible: passed;
4. The data sizes are controlled and correct: passed;
5. The temporal coverage description (metadata) is consistent to the data, time steps are correct: passed;
6. The format is correct: passed;
7. Variable description and data are consistent: passed
WDCC-TQA checklist
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. The list of TQA metrics are documented in the 'WDCC User Guide for Data Publication' Chapter 8.1.1
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Is documented by

[1] DOI Zängl, Günther; Reinert, Daniel; Rípodas, Pilar; Baldauf, Michael. (2014). The ICON (ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic) modelling framework of DWD and MPI-M: Description of the non-hydrostatic dynamical core. doi:10.1002/qj.2378
[2] DOI Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Lorenz, Stephan J.; Shanahan, Timothy. (2020). The end of the African humid period as seen by a transient comprehensive Earth system model simulation of the last 8000 years. doi:10.5194/cp-16-117-2020

Attached Datasets (2)

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