Beyond Forcing Scenarios: Predicting Climate Change through Response Operators in a Coupled General Circulation Model: 1% annual CO2 increase ramp experiment


Lembo, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank; Lucarini, Valerio

MPI-ESM model (T31 resolution) v. 1.2: ramp forcing experiment with 1% CO2 concentration increase every year until doubling with respect to pre-industrial values.

A ramp forcing experiment with linear increase in CO2 concentrations by 1% every year, starting from t=0: when doubled concentration is achieved, the concentration is kept steady until the end of the run (1000 years). The experiment is performed with MPI-ESM model, coarse resolution (CR: T31). It consists of an ensemble with 20 runs, starting from a set of perturbed initial conditions representative of pre-industrial CO2 levels (same as for the 2xCO2abrupt experiment, see doi:10.26050/WDCC/2xCO2abrupt). The experiment is aimed as a testbed for the Green’s functions computed via the 2xCO2abrupt experiment. This is a model application of the linear response theory, as described in Lembo et al. 2020.
TRR181 - S1 (The response theory as a tool for investigating climate predictability and scale separation)
Dr. Valerio Lembo (
Spatial Coverage
Longitude 0 to 360 Latitude -90 to 90
Temporal Coverage
1850-01-01 to 2849-12-31
Use constraints
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) (
Data Catalog
World Data Center for Climate
12.78 TiB (14056190665336 Byte)
completely archived
Creation Date
Future Review Date
Cite as
Lembo, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank; Lucarini, Valerio (2022). Beyond Forcing Scenarios: Predicting Climate Change through Response Operators in a Coupled General Circulation Model: 1% annual CO2 increase ramp experiment. World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) at DKRZ.

Please be aware that some of the variables might be absent and some datasets might be incomplete. Check metadata before downloading the datasets.
Result Date
Findable: 6 of 7 level;
Accessible: 2 of 3 level;
Interoperable: 3 of 4 level;
Reusable: 5 of 10 level
F-UJI online v2.2.1 automated
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. Metrics documentation: Metric Version: metrics_v0.5
Method Url
Result Date
Result Date
1. Number of data sets is correct and > 0: passed;
2. Size of every data set is > 0: passed;
3. The data sets and corresponding metadata are accessible: passed;
4. The data sizes are controlled and correct: passed;
5. The temporal coverage description (metadata) is consistent to the data: passed;
6. The format is correct: passed;
7. Variable description and data are consistent: passed
WDCC-TQA checklist
Method Description
Checks performed by WDCC. The list of TQA metrics are documented in the 'WDCC User Guide for Data Publication' Chapter 8.1.1
Method Url
Result Date
Contact typePersonORCIDOrganization


[1] DOI Lembo, Valerio; Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco. (2020). Beyond Forcing Scenarios: Predicting Climate Change through Response Operators in a Coupled General Circulation Model. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-65297-2

Is documented by

[1] DOI Giorgetta, Marco A.; Jungclaus, Johann; Reick, Christian H.; Legutke, Stephanie; Bader, Jürgen; Böttinger, Michael; Brovkin, Victor; Crueger, Traute; Esch, Monika; Fieg, Kerstin; Glushak, Ksenia; Gayler, Veronika; Haak, Helmuth; Hollweg, Heinz-Dieter; Ilyina, Tatiana; Kinne, Stefan; Kornblueh, Luis; Matei, Daniela; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Mueller, Wolfgang; Notz, Dirk; Pithan, Felix; Raddatz, Thomas; Rast, Sebastian; Redler, Rene; Roeckner, Erich; Schmidt, Hauke; Schnur, Reiner; Segschneider, Joachim; Six, Katharina D.; Stockhause, Martina; Timmreck, Claudia; Wegner, Jörg; Widmann, Heinrich; Wieners, Karl-H.; Claussen, Martin; Marotzke, Jochem; Stevens, Bjorn. (2013). Climate and carbon cycle changes from 1850 to 2100 in MPI-ESM simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. doi:10.1002/jame.20038
[2] DOI Ruelle, David. (2009). A review of linear response theory for general differentiable dynamical systems. doi:10.1088/0951-7715/22/4/009
[3] DOI Ghil, Michael. (2015). A Mathematical Theory of Climate Sensitivity or, How to Deal With Both Anthropogenic Forcing and Natural Variability?. doi:10.1142/9789814579933_0002
[4] DOI Lucarini, Valerio; Blender, Richard; Herbert, Corentin; Ragone, Francesco; Pascale, Salvatore; Wouters, Jeroen. (2014). Mathematical and physical ideas for climate science. doi:10.1002/2013RG000446
[5] DOI Ragone, Francesco; Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank. (2015). A new framework for climate sensitivity and prediction: a modelling perspective. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2657-3
[6] DOI Lucarini, Valerio. (2015). Response Operators for Markov Processes in a Finite State Space: Radius of Convergence and Link to the Response Theory for Axiom A Systems. doi:10.1007/s10955-015-1409-4

Attached Dataset Groups ( 20 )

Search on group level...Details for selected entry
[Entry acronym: 1pctCO2] [Entry id: 3878796]